Fully Verifiable and Secure Online Voting

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Privacy & Security

Guaranteeing voter privacy and election security is a multi-step process that needs to be maintained throughout the voting cycle: during voting, vote transmission and the decryption process. This ensures that privacy is maintained from the moment voters mark their ballot through to when ballots are counted.
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Integrity & Auditability

Providing voting process transparency and auditability in an online voting environment is a challenge. Reliable online voting technology ensures voters can verify their votes have been cast and counted correctly, that they have not been tampered, and allows observers and independent auditors to verify the integrity of the online process.

Multilayer Security and
Verifiability Framework

Scytl OLV – Technology and Security – Privacy and Security

Privacy & Security

Scytl OLV – Technology and Security – Integrity and Auditability

Integrity & Auditability

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End-to-End Encryption

To ensure complete privacy, the votes are encrypted on the voting device, guaranteeing they cannot be tampered with during transmission or when received by the voting server.

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Cast-as-Intended
(Individual Verifiability)

Return codes allow voters to check if the encrypted votes received by the server contain the selected voting options, without breaking vote secrecy.

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Eligibility

Encrypted votes are digitally signed on the voter's device using key roaming mechanisms ensuring voter eligibility and protecting vote integrity.

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Recorded-as-Cast
(Individual Verifiability)

Receipts allow voters to verify if their votes have been stored in the ballot box by checking on a public bulletin board.

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Vote Correctness

Voting servers verify if the contents of the encrypted votes are valid without needing to decrypt them. This allows verifying that invalid votes are not cast accidentally, all without breaking vote secrecy.

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Ballot Box Integrity Check

Ballot box integrity is verified by using the public bulletin board, digital signatures and mathematical proofs of the votes.

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Vote Secrecy

Votes are decrypted using a verifiable mix-net and secret sharing scheme, this ensures that voter anonymity is maintained when vote contents are counted.

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Counted-as-Recorded
(Universal Verifiability)

The mathematical proofs produced by the mix-net and decryption processes provide evidence of accuracy of the counting process and therefore, the accuracy of the results.

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Bulletin Board Audit
(Universal Verifiability)

To facilitate public audits, mathematical proofs produced by the mix-net and decryption processes are published in an Immutable bulletin board.

How End-to-End Security and Verifiability Works

1
AUTHENTICATION
Voter Authentication & Credentials

Online voting has been designed with flexibility in mind, allowing voter authentication via pre-existing or new voting authentication methods.

2
VOTING
Voting

Voters make and confirm their selections, votes are encrypted before leaving the voters´ device, ensuring that they remain secret all the way throughout transmission and ballot counting.

3
BALLOT BOX RECORDING
Ballot Box Recording

Votes are received in the ballot box and without decrypting the votes, voting servers check if the contents of the encrypted votes are valid, allowing to double check for invalid votes.

4
BALLOT BOX VERIFICATION
Ballot Box Verification

The integrity of the ballot box is verified by using the bulletin board, digital signatures and mathematical proofs of the votes providing evidence of the accuracy of the counting process and the accuracy of the results.

5
MIXING
Mixing

After the election is closed, online votes are securely transferred for “mixing” by the electoral organization. The mixing process digitally shuffles the votes and breaks the correlation between encrypted votes and voters.

6
DECRYPTION
Decryption

Votes are decrypted using a verifiable mix-net and secret sharing scheme. A quorum of electoral body members is required to regenerate the election key to decrypt the votes.

7
TALLYING
Tallying

Once the electoral board decrypts the votes, these are tallied and only visible by the authorized staff, ensuring no results are preliminarily published.

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